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What is the best treatment for soft, brittle bones (osteoporosis)?

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Osteoporosis is a disease in which your bones become brittle and fragile due to a reduction in bone mass. Osteoporosis patients are at high risk to suffer a fracture or even multiple bone fractures. Low energy trauma or physical contact is enough to cause a fracture which does not happen to normal people. Screening for osteoporosis is important to identify individuals who are at risk to develop such fractures and to prevent that from happening. Medicine for osteoporosis online is available to help you deal with this illness. The best treatment of osteoporosis will be discussed later in this article.

  Fractures that happened to patients with osteoporosis are also known as fragility fractures. Fragility fractures are fractures that happened as a result of fall from standing height or with no physical injury. Fragility fractures frequently affect the backbones or spine, hip bone, bones of the wrist, ribs, pelvis, and bone of the arm or humerus. Skull, hands, feet, and ankles fracture are not considered as fragility fractures. The risk for fragility fractures increases as the bone density goes down.

  It was estimated that 9 million osteoporotic patients are suffering from bone fracture worldwide in the year 2000. Data shows that up to 600 per 100,000 women suffer from a hip fracture due to osteoporosis and up to 1400 per 100,000 women suffer from spine fracture annually worldwide. Scandinavians were reported to have the highest rate of hip fracture. The Koreans and Americans were reported to have the highest incidence of a spine fracture. A study in the United States of America shows that 43 million Americans have low bone mass and 10 million have osteoporosis.

  History taking, physical examination, and measurement of bone mineral density are important in screening for patients who have a risk to develop fragility fracture. The risk factors of fragility fractures are:

  • Low bone mineral density
  • Increasing age
  • Previous fracture
  • Family history of hip fracture
  • On long-term corticosteroids therapy
  • Low body weight
  • High intake of alcohol
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Hispanic adults
  • Black population
  • Asian people

  Post-menopausal women are at risk of suffering from osteoporosis. Most postmenopausal women with osteoporosis have bone loss due to low in estrogen or advance in age. The things need to be done to confirm a diagnosis of osteoporosis is:

  • History taking
  • Physical examination
  • Blood calcium level
  • Blood phosphorus level
  • Blood albumin level
  • Total protein
  • Creatinine level
  • Electrolytes analysis
  • Liver enzymes analysis
  • The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Full blood count
  • Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan (DEXA scan)

  Ageing and low sex hormones levels are the two issues in menopause that cause a person to develop osteoporosis. There are other causes of osteoporosis which are also known as the secondary causes of osteoporosis. The secondary causes of osteoporosis are:

  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease
  • Cushing’s syndrome
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Early menopause
  • Hypercortisolism
  • Celiac disease or other diseases that cause malabsorption
  • Connective tissue disorders
  • Idiopathic hypercalciuria

  Secondary causes of osteoporosis will need specific additional treatment plans. Treating the underlying causes will also help to cure osteoporosis. Other investigations that can be done are:

  • Test for celiac disease
  • 24-hour urine for calcium and creatinine level
  • Serum and urine protein measurement and electrophoresis
  • Parathyroid hormone level
  • Cortisol level in urine
  • Bone turnover markers

  Lifestyle changes that need to be done by osteoporotic patients are:

  • Adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium via diet
  • Stop smoking
  • Exercise
  • Fall prevention measures
  • Stop alcohol intake
  • Avoid medications that cause bone loss

  The examples of treatments for osteoporosis are:

  • Bisphosphonates
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements
  • Androgens (Men)
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators
  • Estrogen and progesterone therapy
  • Other additional treatments