Ketamine and tramadol are often expected to stop the prescription of six doses of meperidine: (5 + 7) / 2. Our hypothesis is that the mixture of ketamine and tramadol may interact which the coadministration of both will prevent nine doses of meperidine (10 – 1). This suggests that we’ll have three doses above what’s expected if the 2 drugs act independently. We used 9 and 6 for means and a couple of SDs. The sample size utilized in this study was 16 patients in each of the four groups with α = 0.05 and β = 0.2.
Informed consent was obtained from the patients. All 18 – 80-year-old patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I – II who underwent elective pyelolithotomy surgery during 2013 – 2014 were enrolled within the study. Those excluded from the study were patients with liver disease; renal function impairment (creatinine > 2 mg/mL); a history of opioid addiction; an allergy to tramadol fast shippingl; a history of seizure disorder; any contraindications to ketamine or tramadol, like hypertension, ischemic heart diseases, psychological disorders, or seizure; and people who weren’t willing to participate within the study.
A pyelolithotomy is an operation during which renal surgery is performed via an outsized subcostal incision within the flank. within the OR , 0.04 mg/kg of midazolam and a couple of μg/kg of fentanyl were used because the premedication for all patients. Anesthesia induction was achieved using 4 – 5 mg/kg of thiopental , 0.5 mg/kg of atracurium, and 1.5 mg/kg of lidocaine. Isoflurane with a minimum alveolar concentration of 1 and 100% O2 were maintained during the anesthesia period. After acceptable anesthesia was achieved, a Foley catheter was inserted. Patients were placed during a flank position during surgery. The Bispectral index was maintained between 40 and 50. Until half-hour before the termination of the operation, 0.7 μg/kg of fentanyl was injected in patients who experienced a 20% increase in vital sign or pulse (compared with baseline values measured within the ward). Patients who required higher doses of opioids were excluded from the study. At the top of the surgery, isoflurane was discontinued.
The patients were randomly divided into four equal groups using sealed envelopes, which were prepared by an anesthetic nurse unaware of the objectives of the study. an equivalent nurse also prepared and labeled similar syringes containing either normal saline or one the study medications:
– 10 mL of saline (saline group).
– 1 mg/kg of ketamine in 10 mL of saline (K group).
– 1 mg/kg of tramadol in 10 mL of saline (T group).
– 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine plus 0.5 mg/kg of tramadol in 10 mL of saline (K/T group).
At the top of the operation, one among these medications was injected subcutaneously at each patient’s wound site by a surgeon. After extubation, patients were transferred to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and were carefully observed until discharge.
In order to realize the first objective of this study, each patient’s pain scores were measured at the time of their arrival within the PACU; 5, 10, 15, and half-hour after their arrival; and 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours after their operation employing a 10-cm VAS score.
In order to realize the secondary objectives of this study, each patient’s sedation score was assessed during the primary half-hour after arriving at the PACU using the Ramsay sedation scale (which uses scores with a variety of 0 – 6) simultaneously with their pain scores. Additionally, pulse and mean blood pressure were recorded before the surgery, at five-minute intervals throughout the surgery, and through each patient’s occupation of the PACU. Any complications the patients experienced, like nausea, vomiting, and hallucinations, were recorded during recovery.
Rescue analgesia was given intravenously (titratable bolus doses of meperidine up to 0.5 mg/kg) during the primary 24 hours after the surgery upon each patient’s demand for more pain control.
The duration of surgery was defined because the interval between the primary incision and therefore the last surgical suture.